Tunes of the Month – January 2017

Tunes of the Month is a series designed to engage the readers of the blog to learn a new tune (or two) each month. Come learn with us and expand your piping repertoire!

Novice Level: 2 Part Tune of the Month is Patrick O’Connor’s Polka. Now, I know what you’re thinking, “polkas are cheesy.” Well, good thing you don’t play the accordion. I like to think of polkas as easy little reels. They are great tunes that are easy to play, and easy to play quickly which is what makes them so fun. Next month we’ll have another polka (Tom Billy’s) you can pair with this one; both were obtained from Jerry O’Sullivan at the Spanish Peaks Piping Retreat back in September 2016.

Patrick O’Connor’s Polka – sheet music

Patrick O’Connor’s & Tom Billy’s Polkas – Tom Billy’s will be the Novice Tune of the Month for February 2017

Intermediate Level: January’s 4 Part Tune of the Month is actually a 5 part reel. The Foxhunter’s Reel, usually played in the key of G in Irish sessions, actually goes beyond the highland bagpipe scale even if transposed up to the key of A. Most importantly, it requires a low E in the 2nd part which we simply don’t have. However, the tune is so cool it’s worthwhile to play on the pipes even with the modifications it takes to make it fit our scale.

To get some potential confusion out of the way first, this is NOT a reel version of the 9/8 jig that is so popular; Alasdair Gillies was well known for playing jig, reel, and waltz versions of that tune. But this month’s The Foxhunter’s Reel is not that tune at all. It is a completely different tune. Here it is, doesn’t it just sound like a party you want to be part of!?

If you search for the tune in the Pekaar Tune Encyclopedia, there’s only one result that is pertinent to the version heard above; all the other references are to the 9/8 jig and its many manifestations. The version found in Barry Shear’s Cape Breton Collection Of Bagpipe Music is the only relevant published version I could find. Handily enough, Barry gives you the sheet music as a snapshot of his collection on his website (scroll down to the green book for the pdf of the sheet music). Apparently this tune survives in the Cape Breton tradition as evidenced by its inclusion in Barry’s book.

I did not come across Barry’s version until compiling this blog entry having first heard the tune in a facebook video played by a couple fiddlers playing it together on one fiddle, one bowing the other fingering (anyone have a link to this band/video? It is super cool). Barry’s version is different than mine by how it adapts the tune to fit the highland bagpipe scale. Try arranging the tune yourself! The stripped down score can be found on thesession.org in ABC format. Transpose up from G major to A major, ignore all the transient G sharps and just play our usual G naturals instead, and then adapt the rest!

The Foxhunter’s Reel – Patrick McLaurin’s version

 

Community Contributed Recordings: None yet!

Tunes of the Month – December 2016

Here are December 2016’s Tunes of the Month, a 2 part jig intended for novice level players and a 4 part hornpipe intended for intermediate level players.

Novice Level: Kenmure’s on and awa’ = 2 parts of 6/8 March or Jig

Kenmure’s on and awa’ is a 6/8 March that can be found in older collections in addition to Jim McGillivray’s pipetunes.ca. I first heard it in Jig form off of Brian McNeill‘s fiddle on Ed Miller‘s Lyrics of Gold album, an album dedicated to songs of Robert Burns. Ed’s voice is unsurpassed, just like Brian’s fiddle. For how simple it is, it has an excellent melody.

Sheet Music: Kenmure’s on and awa’

Intermediate Level: The Inverness Gathering = 4 parts of 2/4 March, Hornpipe, or Quickstep

I mean, who hasn’t played, or at least heard, The Inverness Gathering? It’s a classic; literally, no composer is ever listed. While it is usually scored as a 2/4 March, David Glen’s version is scored as a 4/4 March (dates somewhere between 1876 – 1900, the publication dates of his Collection of Highland Bagpipe Music). Henderson’s Tutor for the Highland Bagpipe and Collection of Pipe Music, the second edition published between 1918 and 1932, presents a similar setting with a little twist in the 4th part. Page 15 of Scots Guards Volume I has a modern, 2/4 March version of Henderson’s setting. However, I find these settings lacking. Specifically, they succumb to the monotonous ending of every other 2/4 March that ends with a C doubling, low A, birl combination in the 8th bar, and in this case the 7th bar just being what it needs to be to make the C doubling in the 8th bar sound appropriate.

However, we can thank PM W. Norris in 1951 for publishing The Glendaruel Collection which provides a, I daresay, better setting. Better in that the 8th bar starts with an E doubling instead of Glen’s C doubling, all else being the same in the 8th bar. This requires a different 7th bar which is more fluid and musical, i.e. less finger twisty and less technical sounding. Judges might look at you weird, but I would personally play this setting, perhaps with Henderson’s 4th part twist added for flavor. Alasdair Gillies played his own setting with the E doubling ending on the first track of his Lochbroom album. I’ve transcribed his setting for you below.

However, I’m not inclined to actually play the tune as a 2/4 March as listed in these collections. Those familiar with Coin MacLellan’s World’s Greatest Pipers album will recognize what is listed as the Clachnacuddin Hornpipe as just a hornpipe version of The Inverness Gathering. Colin tells me it is an arrangement played by his father John MacLellan, dating back to the mid-20th century. Googling “Clachnacuddin” reveals a connection to Inverness so there’s an obvious connection intended. Hornpipes are also in 2/4 time so it’s not the hardest transition from a 2/4 March, you play it faster and round it out a bit (and much more!). The astute listener will note that Colin’s hornpipe version also utilizes the E doubling ending with the more fluid 7th and 8th bars akin to my preferred Glendaruel version. One can find another hornpipe-like version that has the E doubling ending in James Bett’s A Collection of Pipe Music published in 1899. Colin’s version is very much an average between the Bett and Glendaruel versions, though I am certainly not claiming that was the process for deriving the setting. It certainly stands on its own!

Colin MacLellan has graciously allowed me to share my transcription of his setting of the tune here. Thank you Colin!

Colin MacLellan’s setting sheet music (and the Tune of the Month): Clachnacuddin Hornpipe

Clachnacuddin Hornpipe – 1950 Henderson drones, X-TREME tenors, Rocket bass, Murray Henderson straight cut reed, Prototype chanter, Colin’s setting, Fingers that haven’t played in 3 weeks due to illness.

Clachnacuddin Hornpipe – Same as above but different prototype chanter and different Murray Henderson reed (how consistent), last two notes in the 4th bar of the 4th part a wee bit different

Alasdair Gillies’ setting: The Inverness Gathering

Tune of the Month – November 2016

I love new tunes. The Tune of the Month for November 2016 is Murdo MacGill(i)vray of Eoligarry (I’m told pronounced Yoligarry). This is a 4 part reel that’s pretty easy overall, with a beefy 3rd part that incorporates 2 low A taorluaths and 1 bubbly note from C to B. For Grade IV players, I’ve got a 2 part reel for you: Kate Dalrymple.

Why don’t you learn either of these two tunes with me this month and once you get it down, record it and I can post it to the blog (either with attribution or anonymously)? You can be sure I’ll be posting my progress. I would like to see other people take on the challenge of learning a new tune each month along with me. I think, too often, we get bogged down in perfecting 1 tune for competition, that we forget to get better by playing other tunes. I find my playing gets better the more different music I try to play, not more of the same. Part of this probably has to do with not getting bored with the same old thing over and over again. And, if you don’t finish it within the month, that’s cool; keep at it or not, and I can always add your rendition at a later date. No critique will be made of any recording, it’s just to share. I can link to YouTube videos as well.

Murdo MacGillivray of Eoligarry can be found in Donald MacLeod’s book 3, which you should buy if you haven’t already, or can buy it from Jim McGillivray’s pipetunes.ca. Here’s a link with all the details of where the tune can be found.

Here’s an “instructional” video of the tune on practice chanter:

Kate Dalrymple is a great little 2 part reel that reinforces common reel basics. Here’s my sheet music, although there are many variations available:

Kate Dalrymple -pdf of sheet music

Here’s an “instructional” video of the tune on practice chanter:

Submit your recordings to me via email. Just take my website, patrickmclaurin.com, and stick a @yahoo before the .com.

Happy Piping!

My Progress (I’m only going to critique myself, ABC notation has a scale of GABcdefga and anything in {} are grace notes):

Murdo MacGillivray of Eoligarry 2016-11-06 – need to hold the C note in the “{g}c{d}A{e}A” phrase at the end of lines, need to clean up “A{d}c” movements and watch for crossing noises.


Murdo MacGillivray of Eoligarry – 2016-11-08 – 7:16 and 10.5 MB of me fine tuning the tune; trying to hold the 2nd low A in “A<{d}A” in the 1st and 3rd bars of the 1st and 2nd parts; trying to hold high As in the 2nd part; trying to hold F and E in the 4th part; still trying to hold the Cs at the end of lines; need to not come off the end of the line so quick; bubbly note a bit mushy; grip in the 2nd part a bit labored


Jeannie Carruthers, Susan MacLeod, Murdo MacGillivray of Eoligarry – 2016-11-21 – Need to omit the pickup into Eoligarry and break right into it.


Kate Dalrymple – Patrick


Kate Dalrymple – David Glen – don’t let those taorluaths sneak up on you, haha!


Kate Dalrymple – JR Glen – this version is AWESOME, I think there’s a typo in the music = the 1st ending of the 2nd part should be “d2 fd” instead of “d2 fe”, it sticks out in the recording something awful.

Contributed Recordings:

None so far!

Colin Kyo pipes tied into an “old” L&M bag

When I first acquired my Colin Kyo bagpipes from a friend they were “tied” into a grommetted Gannaway bag. At the time this did not bother me. On a tangent, I’ve longed neglected my old Henderson pipes due to difficulties with reeding the drones. With X-treme tenor reeds, a short, inverted Ezeedrone bass reed, and a new bass bottom with a bigger bore the Hendersons have been singing tied into an old L&M bag I got off of someone for $50. So, I’ve been playing my old Hendersons a lot. In addition, my Glencoe and Terry sets are also both tied into old L&M bags. I LOVE THEM. Anyways, my Colin Kyo pipes weren’t being used much due to the bag issue as I came to dislike the bulk of the grommets on the Gannaway. So, on the hunt for old L&M bags I came across one that never even had the holes cut. Sweet! So, I’m set to go now. And they sound fantastic with their new bag.

The problem started when I thought a live Facebook broadcast of a practice session of me playing my newly set up Colin Kyo bagpipes was a good idea. Lots of people tuned in, but when I went back to listen to it, there was a lot of audio quality loss. This was a Facebook thing as I guess they think video is more important. The source of the audio was my Zoom H2 recorder wired into the lightning port of my iPhone via a Blue Mikey Digital. So, this post is to offer the audio simultaneously recorded by my Zoom H2 during that session so you can hear what the pipes really sounded like. I haven’t included all the recordings because the first few were during warm up and had me sorting the chanter tuning. I last played the chanter with the bag unseasoned and so it was setup for a wet reed (pushed farther in the seat), but the bag having been seasoned since then left the reed dry and therefore sharp, and then flat because I pulled it out too much, and then just about right.

Colin Kyo drones + Colin Kyo chanter + regular Ezeedrone reeds + 5+ year old Gilmour chanter reed that just won’t quit.

Kind of Laois & Rakes of Kildare

Mo Ghile Mear, Neili’s Polka, & Ger the Rigger

Angus MacKinnon & Frank Thompson

The Big Yin & Picnic in the Sky

Patrick O’Connor’s & Tom Billy’s Polkas – picked these up from Jerry O’Sullivan at the Spanish Peaks Piping Retreat

1950s Hendersons + X-TREME tenors + Ezeedrone bass

I’ve finally gotten back into playing my first set of pipes, a set of 1950s Hendersons. Years ago I played them with Selbie drone reeds and they sounded good, very good, for quite some time. Over the last few years, as I’ve acquired other bagpipes, they’ve fallen by the wayside, to rest in the back of a drawer (I have a chest of drawers dedicated to bagpipes). But, I’ve decided that maybe the 1960s Sinclairs aren’t going to be my band set after all since we’re not going to tune to Bb since that’s a pain; not all Bb chanters actually tune that easily to Bb. So, we’re moving up a few Hertz to 473 Hz and I reevaluated which pipes I was going to play and I’ve been trying my old Hendersons again. I am borrowing the bass bottom joint from my Kron Standards in place of the Henderson’s; the Henderson bottom joint is bored the same as the tenor bottoms which I find odd. The slightly larger Kron Standard bass bottom bore gives a little more power to the bass. We’re talking going from an ID of 0.310″ to about 0.322″. I’d like to get another bass bottom joint at around 0.340″.

I’m running them with X-TREME tenor drone reeds and an inverted, short Ezeedrone bass. I find they are quite stable and don’t need much movement to retune them. That, and they’re tied into an old L&M bag I bought off someone for $50 several years ago; the bag is a dream. New Colin Kyo chanter, Husk reed.

The competition in Salado, TX is coming up soon so I’ve been thinking about what tunes I’m going to play solo. I’ve got plenty to pick from, just have to settle. Here is what I practiced today:

Jeannie Carruthers, Inveraray Castle, and The Rejected Suitor

The Redundancy and Donella Beaton

Captain Calum Campbell’s Caprice, The Big Yin, and Picnic in the Sky – granted, not competition music but a new set of mine

Chris Terry drones with various drone reeds

Chris Terry drones, Colin Kyo chanter with new Husk reed pitching at 473 Hz. Drone reed test. Tune is Fair Maid of Barra. I like the Canning!

Low A – Ezee, Canning, Canning bass Ezee tenors, Xtreme bass Ezee tenors, Ezee bass Redwood tenors, Ezee, Kinnaird, Canning, Selbie.


ezee – Ezee for reference.


ezee-bass_redwood_tenors – Keep the current Ezee bass and add bigger tenors, the Redwoods.


canning – I think this is a good bet to get a deeper tone. Canning carbon fiber basses are good at that with certain bass drones.


canning-bass_ezee-tenors – If you just bought Canning carbon fiber bass but kept your Ezee tenors.


xtreme-bass_ezee-tenors – The Xtreme bass is almost as bassy as the Canning.


selbie – I’d pass.


kinnaird – I dunno, I like the Canning.


Edit 2016-08-13:

Fair Maid, The Big Yin, and Picnic in the Sky – Canning carbon fiber bass with Redwood tenors.

Added Canning bass with Redwood tenors to the Low A file; it’s added at the beginning of the file so it can be directly compared to the full Ezee. The biggest change from that combo to full Ezee drone is still mostly the deeper Canning bass:

CbRt-E-C-CbEt-XbEt-EbRt-E-K-C-S – Canning bass Redwood tenors, Ezee, Canning, Canning bass Ezee tenors, Xtreme bass Ezee tenors, Ezee bass Redwood tenors, Ezee, Kinnaird, Canning, Selbie.

Tuning Tenor Bold Pipes

I have recently re-fallen in love with my Colin Kyo drones made by Murray Huggins. To make a long story less short, I started playing Colin Kyo chanters in September of 2008. Sometime later I advised a student to purchase a set of Murray’s pipes and not knowing anything about them I advised my student to buy plain Jane Ezeedrone reeds. When the pipes arrived and we set them up, I clearly remember standing behind my student tuning the tenor drones and noticed this audible ring coming off the tenors. I thought, “Wow, Murray can make chanters AND drones!” I was in graduate school and my wife was in medical school so I didn’t have the dough to get a set myself. A few years pass and a local piper buys a used set of full moose mounted Colin Kyo bagpipes in 2012. I then bought those pipes from him in 2014 when he bought a new set of Colin Kyo pipes half mounted in engraved silver and moose antler. While his set of magic Canning drone reeds didn’t come with the set, I’ve since found my favorite set of reeds for this pipe so far. Ezeedrone! The same reeds I had my student purchase 4-5 years earlier that had that distinct ring off the tenors.

Now, on to how the title and content of the blog post are related. That ring off the tenors is grand, and gives great harmonic blend with the chanter. It makes every note sparkle and sound different from each other. It can also be tedious to tune such drones to the chanter. Those overtones, like the ring off the tenors, are so audible that not only do you have to get the fundamental of each drone audibly aligned, you also have to get those overtones in tune with each other which requires very accurate fine tuning. For some background on that, read this blog post about drone locking.

My tuning routine is as such: 1) Turn off bass and middle tenor, tune outside tenor to chanter low A, 2) Turn on middle tenor and tune to outside tenor and check against low A, 3) Turn the bass on and turn off middle tenor and tune the bass to the outside tenor and check against low A, 4) Turn on middle tenor and make sure all is well. However, this is only sufficient for tenor dominant/audible overtone producing pipes if you’re lucky. I found myself spending a fair bit of time tuning using the above method and then preparing to record a set of tunes only to find that while the drones sounded good against low A, E and a couple other notes would be out of tune just enough for me to notice and not be able to focus on the tunes. That, and I’d never want to intentionally record something for distribution with drones out of tune when I could fix it. So, I had to devise a new method. The new method is exactly the same as the above, except after verifying each set of drone combinations is in tune with low A, I then fine tune each new drone against E (of course, this requires your chanter to already be in tune relative to itself). The method of also checking against E works pretty well I think. You can hear an example of me tuning this way here (note, I often play either high A or D when physically moving the drone; I like D because it has the least harmonic overlap with the drones allowing me to focus on the tuning between the drones whereas high A could obfuscate the drone tuning since it’s just a couple octaves up from the drone fundamentals; make sure your chanter is sounding when tuning drones!):

Tuning

The clip starts with all drones going and you can notice they’re not quite in tune. I shut off the bass and check the tenor unison against low A. I get them settled against D while moving the drone, then low A, and then check against E and you’ll notice they are out of tune against the E even though they sounded fine against low A. This is where you fine tune the overtones. Now, in the clip, before I finish tuning the tenors together, I turn off the middle tenor because I’m going to check the outside tenor by itself against the E first (there’s no point in proceeding if your reference drone isn’t in tune), which it sounded fine so I don’t move it. I then bring the middle tenor back in and you can hear it’s out against the E (since I didn’t fix it a moment ago) so I move it once and check against E again to hear that it is now in tune. On comes the bass with the middle tenor turned off. Again, it sounds good against low A but it’s out of tune relative to the E. 3rd time is a charm for the bass. I almost found it easier to tune the bass against E because its easier to tune the higher frequency overtones of the bass against the E than it is to tune the fundamental to low A. This is because the overtones make the wawawawa sound faster than the fundamental. The bass fundamental wawawa against low A gets to be so slow sometimes it can be hard to hear if it’s my terrible blowing or it’s actually out of tune! The result of tuning with the additional check against E is then heard for the first bit of I Am Proud To Play A Pipe. The first two variations can be heard here as a continuation of the above clip:

I Am Proud To Play A Pipe (forgive the phrasing, I don’t play piobaireachd)

Now I’m eager to try Ezeedrone reeds in all my pipes! We’ll see if it’s Kyo magic, Ezeedrone magic, or a mix of both. Note that I’ve discovered Ezeedrone reeds can’t be set for strength by mouth blowing them. They shut off very easily when mouth blown, disproportionately easy relative to the pressure required to shut them off in the stock. Just a heads up!

Sinclair versus Glencoe

Well, it’s not exactly a perfect comparison. I just happened to play the same sets on both pipes in recent days. Here’s the skinny:

1960ish Sinclair drones with Redwood bass + Rocket tenors (no markings) + original Sinclair chanter (though carved) with Husk chanter reed = 467 Hz with a clear high A

1974-1983 Glencoe drones (1 of about 250) with Canning bass and tenors + Colin Kyo chanter with Gilmour chanter reed = 476 Hz with the crowiest high A ever (I just can’t throw this reed away, all the other notes sound so good)

Glencoe pipes were made by Matt Marshall up in Ontario after having immigrated from Scotland in 1974. Matt worked at R G Lawrie bagpipes before moving so I figure his pipes are of some sort of Lawrie specification.

Sinclair

Fair Maid, Rakish Paddy, Lady Doll Sinclair, and Henwife’s Daughter

Muineira de Casu, Snug in the Blanket, and Thornton’s Jig

Glencoe

Fair Maid, Rakish Paddy, Lady Doll Sinclair, and Henwife’s Daughter

Muineira de Casu, Snug in the Blanket, and Thornton’s Jig

It is amazing how much easier the Colin Kyo chanter is to play! The Sinclair is my band chanter so it gets a lot of play time. But today, I whipped out the Glencoes with Kyo chanter and my fingers were like, “Aaaahhhhhh, I know where the holes are!” Had a blast.

The Illusion of Drone Locking

Tenor drones produce a fundamental pitch one octave below low A. Bass drones produce a fundamental pitch two octaves below low A. However, both drones produce higher frequency pitches called overtones. The first overtone of each is the next A up. So a tenor drone’s first overtone is the same pitch as the chanter’s low A. The bass drone’s first overtone is the same pitch as the tenor drone’s fundamental. The second overtone of each is an E. So the second overtone of a tenor drone is an E with the same frequency as the E on the chanter.

These overtones, when present with enough amplitude to be heard, manifest as a pleasant ringing sound that seems to hover over the top of the overall drone sound. Many may often hear this ringing only transiently as their pressure fluctuates enough for the ringing to fluctuate in and out. Overtone tuning is very sensitive and here’s why.

Say your chanter tunes at low A = 480 Hz, a common pitch in modern piping. This means your tenors should tune to half that at 240 Hz and the bass tunes at half that, 120 Hz. Say we are tuning our tenor drones and one is at 240 Hz but the other is at 245 Hz. They are out of tune. What you will hear is a beating frequency of 5 Hz, the difference between the two frequencies: 245 – 250 = 5; this is the wawawawawa sound produced by out of tune drones. The overtones produce their own beating frequency. For example, our 240 Hz tenor drone will have an E overtone frequency of 720 Hz. The tenor drone playing at 245 Hz will have an E overtone frequency of 735 Hz. The beating frequency between the E overtones is 735 – 720 = 15 Hz. Therefore, if you can hear this beating frequency it will sound very out of tune. That’s fifteen wawawawa in one second! If you tune the second drone down from 245 to 241 Hz, the fundamental beating frequency between the two tenor drones is now 241 – 240 = 1 Hz and the E overtone beating frequency is now 723 – 720 = 3 Hz. The beating frequencies are smaller (not quieter) so our drones are getting closer in tune.

What does this have to do with drone locking? Well, if you can’t hear the overtone frequencies all that well then you don’t have to worry about their faster beating frequency. All you have to do is get your drone fundamental beating frequency small enough that it sounds as if the drones are in tune. I believe many pipers have often favored bass dominant pipes because they feel they “lock” in tune better. Locking is piper code for drones staying in tune for a long period of time without the need for retuning. I postulate that the perception that bass dominant pipes lock better is due to the lower amplitude in overtone frequencies that make their overtone beating frequencies harder to hear. Thus, the illusion of drone locking is simply due to not being able to hear one’s drones go out of tune because the fundamental beating frequency is still too small to hear and the overtone beating frequencies are too quiet to hear. Note the difference in the words used. Too small to hear means the wawawawa is so slow it can’t be discerned. Too quiet to hear means regardless of how fast it is, you cannot hear it.

I offer an audio sample to guide your understanding. This is made possible by a bum reed the manufacturer has already replaced. This bum reed needed a replacement because it sounds terrible. It produces this huge, nasty overtone that just hurts to listen to. Which makes it a great reed to prove my point, you can definitely hear the fundamental beating frequency along with an overtone beating frequency. You may need to turn up the volume to a setting that is generally considered too loud to be able to discern both beating frequencies. Notice how much smaller the fundamental beating frequency is relative to the high pitched, grating overtone beating frequency. Even near the end of the audio file when the drones are pretty close to in tune, you hear the overtone beating frequency go in and out as I try to find the perfect tuning spot for the second drone. It’s almost impossible and so I will never use this reed in public or even in private, hence why I asked for a replacement.

Tenor drone tuning

EDIT (28-06-2016):

I have received a copy of Mode Locking and the Highland Bagpipe by John Kidd and Peter J. Lindstrom published in Sonus, Vol. 32 No. 2, 2012. I found a couple of statements from the article interesting, they are as follows:

“Preliminary measurements have shown that the effect is real. The phenomenon has not yet been quantified by detailed measurements of instruments of our design. The instruments to be measured must be of this design because those made in the traditional manner, and not modified, will not mode lock.”

“Pipes with abrupt changes in cross section of the drone interiors and cylindrically bored stocks will not mode lock.”

To paraphrase, “single reed” mode locking is specifically the coherence, if you will, of the fundamental with the overtones and occurs very quickly, within the first second of playing a tone on an instrument. “Multiple reed” mode locking is the coherence between two instruments, e.g. two tenor drones.

Mode lock = Phase lock + Frequency lock

By measuring the frequency of the two tenors of the specially designed pipe they determined it took over 30 seconds for them to frequency lock. They made no determination for phase locking.

“Instruments made in the traditional way do not mode lock; however, there are several examples of modified pipes with tapered, but not flared, stocks that have mode locked.” Examples given in the article include: John MacFadyen’s Hendersons (mode locked in 20 minutes), Colin MacMellan’s (Lellan’s?) MacDougals, and Robertson pipes in generally (mode locked in 20 to 30 minutes) due to tapered stocks.

MacDougal designed the bell of the drones (a low pass filter) to allow only the fundamental and a couple overtones to pass. It is also claimed that MacDougals exhibit papered (tapered?) stocks and internal bore chamfering. Mode locking occurs in about 20 minutes.